Mitosis vs Meiosis

  • Mitosis vs Meiosis

    Posted by Emma on June 21, 2023 at 3:21 pm

    Can someone please clarify the differences between mitosis and meiosis, and how each process contributes to cell division and genetic diversity? Thank you!

    Diya replied 11 months, 3 weeks ago 2 Members · 1 Reply
  • 1 Reply
  • Diya

    Member
    June 28, 2023 at 1:48 pm

    Hi Emma! I’d be happy to, here’s brief summary:

    Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis:

    Mitosis:

    • Occurs in somatic cells (non-reproductive cells).
    • Consists of one division.
    • Produces two genetically identical diploid daughter cells.
    • Function: Growth, repair, and asexual reproduction.
    • Phases: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase (PMAT).

    Meiosis:

    • Occurs in germ cells (reproductive cells).
    • Consists of two divisions (Meiosis I and Meiosis II).
    • Produces four genetically diverse haploid daughter cells.
    • Function: Production of gametes (sperm and eggs).
    • Phases: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II (PMAT I and PMAT II).

    Contribution to Cell Division:

    Mitosis:

    • Ensures the growth, development, and repair of body tissues.
    • Replaces damaged or worn-out cells.
    • Provides a mechanism for asexual reproduction, such as in single-celled organisms.

    Meiosis:

    • Facilitates the production of gametes (sperm and eggs) for sexual reproduction.
    • Reduces the chromosome number by half (from diploid to haploid) in gametes.
    • Helps maintain the stability of the chromosome number across generations.

    Contribution to Genetic Diversity:

    Mitosis:

    • Maintains genetic stability as daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell.
    • Genetic diversity primarily arises from mutations occurring during DNA replication.

    Meiosis:

    • Increases genetic diversity through three mechanisms:
      1. Independent assortment: Random arrangement and separation of homologous chromosomes during Meiosis I.
      2. Crossing over: Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during Prophase I.
      3. Random fertilization: Random fusion of gametes during sexual reproduction.

    I hope this was helpful!

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